Estimulación cerebral no invasiva en las enfermedades neurológicas y psiquiátricas

Lázaro Gómez Fernández

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OBJETIVO: Describir aspectos generales, mecanismos de acción y usos más frecuentes de la estimulación cerebral no invasiva.

ADQUISICIÓN DE LA EVIDENCIA: Se realizó una extensa revisión bibliográfica en la base de datos PubMed. Se incluyeron artículos escritos en idioma inglés, español y francés, que reflejaron consensos, lineamientos o guías sobre las principales sociedades y comités de expertos involucrados con el uso de la estimulación cerebral no invasiva. También se incluyeron ensayos clínicos con evidencias científicas sobre el uso de la estimulación transcraneal con corriente directa y la estimulación magnética transcraneal repetitiva en enfermedades neurológicas y psiquiátricas hasta diciembre de 2018. Se identificaron
102 artículos que se consideraron relevantes bajo los criterios anteriores, de los cuales se descartaron
22 por considerarlos de poca calidad. La muestra final estuvo constituida por 43 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y a ciegas; 15 lineamientos, recomendaciones o criterios de comités de expertos;
13 revisiones, y 9 meta-análisis y revisiones sistemáticas.

RESULTADOS: Las fuentes revisadas concuerdan en que la estimulación magnética transcraneal repetitiva y la estimulación transcraneal con corriente directa son seguras y efectivas como tratamiento adyuvante en una serie de enfermedades neurológicas y psiquiátricas. En ambos casos se inducen pequeñas cantidades de corrientes en la corteza cerebral con efecto neuromodulatorio. Se destacan los resultados alcanzados en el tratamiento de la depresión resistente a fármacos, el dolor crónico, las adicciones, trastornos del neurodesarrollo y el uso en tratamientos combinados con diferentes métodos de terapia física, defectología y del lenguaje.

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Palabras clave

estimulación cerebral no invasiva; neurología; psiquiatría; terapéutica

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