Factores pronósticos y de recurrencia de crisis luego de la cirugía de epilepsia temporal y extratemporal

Aisel Santos Santos, Lilia María Morales Chacón, Manuel Ulises Dearriba Romanidy

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Resumen

Objetivo: Describir los factores de buen pronóstico posquirúrgicos y de recurrencia de crisis luego de la cirugía de epilepsia temporal y extratemporal.

Adquisición de la evidencia: Se realizó la revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos BVS, PUBMED y COCHRANE. Se seleccionaron 40 artículos publicados en los últimos cinco años (2015-2020), en su versión completa, en los idiomas español, inglés y portugués. Se utilizaron como palabras clave: “Epilepsy surgery” AND “seizure outcome”, “Predictors of seizure recurrence”, “Prognostic factors of postoperative seizure outcome”.

Resultados: En los artículos revisados, se evaluaron en total 31 024 participantes (niños y adultos). El rango de libertad de crisis luego de la cirugía fue de 14 % a 92 %, en dependencia del estudio y la población. Los predictores de buen pronóstico más identificados fueron la duración de la epilepsia <10 años, las imágenes de resonancia magnética positiva, el diagnóstico de esclerosis hipocampal o tumor de bajo grado, y la resección completa. En los casos no lesionales, se observó la delimitación de la zona epileptogénica, imágenes de resonancia magnética funcional localizadoras y concordantes con el resto de la evaluación. Entre los predictores de recurrencia más frecuentemente encontrados estuvieron el monitoreo invasivo preoperatorio, la resección incompleta y la displasia cortical aislada.

Conclusiones: La corta duración de la epilepsia, la resonancia magnética positiva y la resección completa de la zona epileptogénica fueron los factores de buen pronóstico más observados; y en los casos no lesionales, la delimitación correcta de la zona epileptogénica. El factor modificable más frecuente fue la duración de la epilepsia antes de ser admitido al paciente para la cirugía.

Palabras clave

cirugía de epilepsia; predictores pronósticos; recurrencia de crisis; epilepsia no lesional

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